In ecology, biodiversity (or biological diversity) is defined as "any type of variability between living organisms, including, among others, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; it includes diversity within species , between species and between ecosystems ".
This definition is given by art. 2 of the Convention on Biological Diversity, an international agreement signed in 1992 to which 196 countries have joined up to now, aimed at protecting the biological variety of living organisms from the genetic level (different organisms within the same species and their relationships) for the specific level (different species within the same escositema and their relationships) up to the ecosystem level (different ecosystems both for chemical-physical characteristics and for types of species within them and the relationships that are established between them).
The importance of biodiversity lies in the fact that it is essential for the life of organisms, species and ecosystems as this variety allows them to adapt and change in response to external inputs. These systems rich in biological diversity are able by themselves to naturally regulate climate change and the biogeochemical processes of the planet.
The delicate balances in which these systems persist must be absolutely safeguarded to counter that phenomenon of constant loss of biodiversity (characterized by the disappearance or extinction of entire species and ecosystems) which we are witnessing which is one of the most serious environmental problems globally. as it involves, among others, an increase in natural disasters, food and energy instability, an impoverishment in the quality of water and a reduction in their availability.
In this regard, World Biodiversity Day is celebrated on May 22nd, established on May 22nd 2000 by the UN General Assembly to remember the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity.